Roundworms are the most common of the parasitic worms found inside a dog. Almost all dogs become infected with them at some time in their lives, usually as puppies. Roundworms may be contracted in different ways, making them easy to spread and hard to control.
Your dog may be infected with roundworms from the time it is born because often the mother passes the worms to the puppy while it is still in her body. Roundworms can also develop in a puppy after it is born when the puppy eats larvated eggs from the environment or drinks worm larvae (young worms) in the mother's milk. Another way roundworms are passed is when roundworm larvae are present in the tissues of a mouse or another small mammal and the puppy eats the animal.
How will roundworms affect my dog?
Adult roundworms live in the affected dog's intestines. Many dogs do not have signs of infection; however, dogs with major roundworm infections, especially puppies, show diarrhea, vomiting, weight loss, dull hair, and a potbellied appearance. The dog may cough if the roundworms move into the lungs.
You may notice the adult roundworms in your dog's feces or vomit. They will appear white or light brown in color and may be several inches long.
How do I prevent my dog from getting roundworms?
Because roundworms can enter your dog's body in many different ways, it is essential to keep your dog's living area clean, remove feces regularly, and, if possible, prevent your dog from eating wild animals that may carry roundworms.
To get rid of roundworms that are passed from the mother dog, puppies should be treated at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age and then receive a preventive treatment monthly. Fecal (stool) examinations should be conducted 2 to 4 times during the first year of life and 1 or 2 times each year in adults. Nursing mothers should be kept on monthly preventive and treated along with their puppies to decrease the risk of transmission.
Many heartworm preventives also control roundworms. Ask your veterinarian about prevention and treatment choices that are appropriate for your dog.
Can humans be harmed by roundworms?
Roundworms do pose a significant risk to humans. Contact with contaminated soil or dog feces can result in human ingestion and infection. Roundworm eggs may accumulate in significant numbers in the soil where pets deposit feces. Once infected, the worms can cause eye, lung, heart and neurologic signs in people.
Children should not be allowed to play where animals have passed feces. Individuals who have direct contact with soil that may have been contaminated by cat or dog feces should wear gloves or wash their hands immediately.
For veterinary professionals, more detailed information on roundworms can be found at https://www.capcvet.org/guidelines/ascarid/.
Did you know?
- People can get roundworms from contact with feces or contaminated soil.
- Children and pregnant women are especially at risk.
- Most dogs get roundworms at sometime in their lives. It can even be passed to puppies before they are born or in the mother’s milk. As a result, puppies should be treated when very young and both the mother and puppies need regular preventive treatment.
- Your veterinarian can suggest appropriate treatment and prevention strategies to keep you and your dog healthy.
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Ask Your Veterinarian
It may not be obvious even if your puppy or dog has roundworms, and yet people can be infected by them. For this reason, it is a good idea to have a regular program of preventative treatment starting with puppies at two weeks of age. Dogs should have fecal (stool) exams 2 to 4 times in their first year of life and once or twice a year thereafter. The best way to control roundworms is to be sure to use a parasite control product recommended by your veterinarian every month.